MLA is a citation format created by the Modern Language Association. It is used for research papers in many college classes, including English. MLA updated their guidelines to the Ninth Edition in April 2021.
In-text parenthetical citations: Whenever you use a quotation, a paraphrase, or a summary, you should give the author’s last name (or the title if no author is included) in parentheses; you should also add the page number if you’re using a printed source. A parenthetical source might look like this for an author (Hammond 42) or like this for a title (MLA Handbook 58).
Parenthetical/In-text citation: (Perry B3).
Introduce the material being cited with a signal phrase that includes the author’s name. Example: HVCC librarian Mary Ellen Bolton points out that students who do not use libraries often find frustration in their research efforts (74). Otherwise, provide the author’s last name and a page number in parentheses. No comma is used. Example: (Bolton 74).
For sources with no author listed, use a shortened version of the title of the work. Titles of books are italicized; titles of articles are put in quotation marks.
|Book by one author||
Mallon, Thomas. Stolen Words: Forays into the Origins and Ravages of Plagiarism. Ticknor and Fields, 1989.
|Book by more than one author||
Lathrop, Ann, and Kathleen Foss. Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era. Libraries Unlimited, 2000.
|Book by three or more authors||
Cunningham, Stewart, et al. Media Economics. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
|Book with no author listed (start with the title)||
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 8th ed. Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
|An Essay, Poem, or Short Story in an Anthology||
Crews, Harry. “Why I Live Where I Live.” The Short Prose Reader, 12th ed., edited by Gilbert H. Muller and Harvey S. Wiener. McGraw-Hill, 2009. pp. 307-10.
|Article from an encyclopedia (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
Cooper, John M. “Socrates.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward Craig, vol. 9. Routledge, 1998.
|E-book (from a library database or catalog)||
DiYanni, Robert. You Are What You Read: A Practical Guide to Reading Well, Princeton U P, 2021. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/hvcc-ebooks/detail.action?docID=6425480.
|E-book (from the Web)||
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Cassell, 1852. Project Gutenberg, 2015, https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/203.
|Article from a journal (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
Strauch, Carl F. “Ismael: Time and Personality in ‘Moby Dick.’” Studies in the Novel, vol. 1, no. 4, winter 1969, pp. 468-83.
|Article from a magazine (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
Posnanski, Joe. “The Running Back, the Cheerleader, and What Came after the Greatest College Football Game Ever.” Sports Illustrated, 28 Dec. 2009, pp. 58-64.
|Article from a newspaper (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
Nearing, Brian. “State Energy Plan: Less Is More.” Times Union [Albany, NY] 16 Dec. 2009, pp. D1-D2.
|Journal article from a database (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
Cleman, John. “Irresistible Impulses: Edgar Allan Poe and the Insanity Defense.” American Literature, vol. 63, no. 4, 1991, pp. 623-40. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/2926871.
|Newspaper article from a database (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
Parkes, Tiffany Anne. “A Jamaican Spiced Bun, Baked for My Mom for the Last Time.” The Washington Post, 4 May 2022, p. E. 1. U.S. Major Dailies, https://www.proquest.com/newspapers/jamaican-spiced-bun-baked-my-mom-last-time/docview/2658992088/se-2?accountid=6155.
|Article from a database (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
Grobe, Anna M. “Equal Pay for Equal Work in Europe? The Key May Be Transparency." Christian Science Monitor, 18 May 2021, Opposing Viewpoints in Context, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A662288710/OVIC?u=hvcc&sid=bookmark-OVIC&xid=e3bd3cc3.
|Article (with a digital object identifier number) from a database||
Ohman, Arne, and Susan Mineka. "Fears, Phobias, and Preparedness: Toward an Evolved Module of Fear and Fear Learning." Psychological Review, vol. 108, no. 3, 2001, Academic OneFile, doi: 10.1037//0033-295X.108.3483.
|Citing an article from a web site (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
Doyle, Brian. “Joyas Voladoras.” The American Scholar, 12 June 2012, https://theamericanscholar.org/joyas-volardores/.
|Citing a web page (if no author is listed, start with the title)||
“Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22 June 2016, https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childmaltreatment/index.html.
|DVD/ Motion Picture||
To Kill a Mockingbird. Directed by Robert Mulligan, performances by Gregory Peck, John Megna, and Frank Overton, Universal International Pictures, 1962.
|Video streaming from subscription database||
Do the Right Thing. Directed by Spike Lee, performances by Danny Aiello, Rosie Perez and John Turturro, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, 1989. Swank Digital Campus, https://digitalcampus.swankmp.net/hvcc299658/watch/3831E212C82B1647?referrer=direct.
|Episode from a series streaming||
“The Potato.” Modern Marvels, produced by Don Cambou, 2010, Films on Demand, https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=102551&xtid=42915.
Ted-Ed. “Why is This Painting So Captivating? - James Earle and Christina Bozsik.” YouTube, 10 Mar. 2016, www.youtu.be/loMy3sbW64g.
Nirvana. “Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind, Geffen, 1991.
|Painting, sculpture or photograph retrieved from Artstor||
Rockwell, Norman. Freedom From Want. 1943. Artstor, https://library.artstor.org/#/asset/ARTSTOR_103_41822000958361.
|Painting, sculpture or photograph retrieved online||
Cezanne, Paul. Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses. 1890, Metropolitan Museum of Art, https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/51.112.1.
Clark, Josh. “How Chili Peppers Work.” Stuff You Should Know, 10 Sept. 2015, https://www.iheart.com/podcast/105-stuff-you-should-know-26940277/episode/how-chili-peppers-work-29467459/.
@tombrokaw. "SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign." Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., https://twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320.
Secondary sources should be used sparingly. Try to locate the original source of information cited in the a work if it is possible. If you read an article or book which cites some information that you want to cite, always refer to the source where you found the information, not the original source.
Works Cited List Example:
Hanrahan, Patricia, et al. “The Mothers’ Project for Homeless Mothers with Mental Illnesses and Their Children: A Pilot Study.” Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, vol. 28 no. 3, 2005, pp. 291-294. APA PsycArticles, doi: 10.2975/28.2005.291.294
In-Text Citation Example:
Dincin and Zeitz’s study of mentally ill mothers (qtd. in Hanrahan, et al. 291)
|MLA format||“Text of prompt” prompt. ChatGPT, Day Month version, OpenAI, Day Month Year, chat.openai.com.|
|MLA Works Cited entry||“Tell me about confirmation bias” prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 16 Feb. 2023, chat.openai.com.|
|MLA in-text citation||(“Tell me about”)|
CSUDH Library. "Introduction to Citation Styles: MLA 9th ed." YouTube, 2020, July 9, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o7MyM_V8-EA.
We recommend that when doi's are available, you include them for both print and electronic sources. The doi is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal, near the copyright notice. The DOI will be included in the citation of articles found in our databases.