Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
HVCC logo and library name

Cite Your Sources: Chicago

Tools for creating bibliographies in MLA, APA, Chicago, and other styles.

What is the Chicago Manual of Style?

Chicago Manual of Style is often used for History classes. The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars. The Chicago Manual of Style is now in the 17th edition.

General Guidelines for Chicago Manual of Style

  • Center the word Bibliography (with a capital B) one inch from the top of a new page at the end of the paper. Include all sources that have been quoted, summarized, or paraphrased in the paper.
  • Use a hanging indent: begin the first line of each entry at the left margin and indent all subsequent lines of an entry one-half inch (5 spaces). Entries are single-spaced, with double-spacing between entries.
  • Alphabetize sources by the authors’ last names.  List authors by last name, first name. If a source has no author, alphabetize by title.  If the first word of the title is A, An, or The, alphabetize the source by the second word of the title instead.
  • Include the city and publisher for books, separated by a colon.  Names of publishers are shortened, usually to the first principal word (example: “Wiley” for “John Wiley and Sons”).
  • Titles of books, websites, databases, and journals are italicized.  Titles of articles, chapters, poems, and other short works are put in quotation marks.
  • Capitalize all title words except for articles (a, an, the), prepositions (to, from, between, etc.), and coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.), unless a particular word is the first or last word of the title or subtitle.
  • Chicago style does not require including an access date for online sources.  However, if your professor would like it included, place it in brackets, after the other publication information and the website address (example: [accessed July 8, 2010]).

Example of a Bibliography entry:

Giaquinto, Richard A. “Instructional Issues and Retention of First-Year Students.” Journal of College Student Retention 11, no. 2 (2009-2010): 267-285.

Example of a Notes entry for the same source:

1. Richard A. Giaquinto, “Instructional Issues and Retention of First-Year Students,” Journal of College Student Retention 11, no. 2 (2009-2010): 267-285.

Examples of subsequent Notes entries for the same source when it is used again later in the paper (presented in an abbreviated form):

14.  Giaquinto, “Instructional Issues,” 268.

15.  Ibid., 270.

Citing Sources Using CMS

When you document your sources using the Chicago Manual of Style, you have to use numbers within the body of your paper to refer readers to the Notes page and the Bibliography page at the end of your paper. The numbers are placed immediately after a quotation, a paraphrase, or a summary and are raised above the regular text by using superscript.

Notes: On the Notes page, you need to list all your sources in the order in which you use them. The first time you use a source, you should include all the information about the author, title, and publication information, but for subsequent uses of the same source, you can use a shortened format. If you refer to the same source in consecutive references, you can use the abbreviation “Ibid,” which is Latin for “the same place."

Bibliography: A bibliography page is an alphabetical listing (by author, or by title if no author is listed) of all your sources. The information listed includes the following: the author (last name, first name); the title (in italics for a long work like a book or a movie and in quotation marks for a short work like an article, a poem, or a short story) with capital letters for all key words; and the publication information (which varies somewhat from one source to another.

Note, too, that entries for the Notes page and the Bibliography page are single spaced with double spacing between the entries. Some common examples are listed below with the Note entry first (with a number preceding it) followed by the Bibliography entry.

Example CMS Citations

 
Footnote or Endnote
Bibliographic Entry
Book by one author      1. Thomas Mallon, Stolen Words: Forays into the Origins and Ravages of Plagiarism (New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1989), 3-4.
Mallon, Thomas, Stolen Words: Forays into the Origins and Ravages of Plagiarism. New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1989.

 

Book by two or more authors      2. Ann Lathrop and Kathleen Foss, Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era (Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2000), 27.
Lathrop, Ann, and Kathleen Foss. Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2000.

 

Book with organization as author      3. University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 656.
University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

 

Article from a newspaper (if no author is listed, start with the title)      4. Brian Nearing, “State Energy Plan: Less Is More,” Times Union (Albany, NY), December 16, 2009.
Nearing, Brian. “State Energy Plan: Less Is More.” Times Union (Albany, NY), December 16,  2009.
Article from a magazine (if no author is listed, start with the title)      5. Joe Posnanski, “The Running Back, the Cheerleader, and What Came after the Greatest College Football Game Ever,” Sports Illustrated, December 28, 2009, 58.
Posnanski, Joe. “The Running Back, the Cheerleader, and What Came after the Greatest College Football Game Ever.” Sports Illustrated, December 28, 2009, 58-64.

 

Article from a journal (if no author is listed, start with the title)      6. Richard A. Giaqunito, “Instructional Issues and Retention of First-Year Students,” Journal of College Student Retention 11, no. 2 (2009-2010): 268.
Giaquinto, Richard A. “Instructional Issues and Retention of First-Year Students.” Journal of College Student Retention 11, no. 2 (2009-2010): 267-285.

 

Article from a reference book (if no author is listed, start with the title)      7. John M. Cooper, “Socrates,” vol. 9 of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward Craig (New York: Routledge, 1998), 9.
Cooper, John M, “Socrates.” Vol. 9, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward Craig. New York: Routledge, 1998. 8-19.

 

Article from a database (if no author is listed, start with the title)      8. Wayne Woodlief, “Op-Ed; Time Heals Biden’s Self-Inflicted Wound,” The Boston Herald, January 26, 2007, 19, http://www.lexisnexis.com.
Woodlief, Wayne. “Op-Ed; Time Heals Biden’s Self-Inflicted Wound.” The Boston Herald, Janaury 26, 2007, 19. http://www.lexisnexis.com.

 

Web page (if no author is listed, start with the title)      9. Robert Harris, “Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers,” Virtual Salt, March 7, 2002, http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm (accessed February 21, 2004).
Harris, Robert. “Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers.” Virtual Salt, March 7, 2002. http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm.

 

DVD/ Motion Picture      10. Alan Pakula, To Kill a Mockingbird, directed by Robert Mulligan (1962; Universal City, CA: Universal Studios Home Entertainment, 1998), DVD.
Peck, Gregory, John Megna, and Frank Overton. To Kill a Mockingbird, collectors ed. DVD. Directed by Robert Mulligan. Universal City, CA: Universal Studios Home Entertainment, 1998.

 

Video Streaming from a Subscription Database      11. Sidney Lumet, 12 Angry Men (1957; Orion-Nova Productions), streaming video, from Swank Digital Campus, 1:36:00, http://digitalcampus.swankmp.net.
Fonda, Henry, Lee J. Cobb and Ed Begley. 12 Angry Men. Directed by Sidney Lumet. Orion-Nova Productions, 1957. Swank Digital Campus, http://digitalcampus.swankmp.net.

 

Episode From a Series Streaming      12. “Stories from the Hudson.” America’s First River: Bill Moyers on the Hudson, produced by Bill Moyers, aired April 23, 2002. Films on Demand, 1:57:34. Posted March 5, 2009. http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?xtid=30024.
Moyers, Bill. “Stories from the Hudson.” America’s First River: Bill Moyers on the Hudson. Aired April 23, 2002. Films on Demand, 1:57:34. Posted March 5, 2009, http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?xtid=30024.

 

YouTube Video      13. “Why is this painting so captivating? - James Earle and Christina Bozsik,” YouTube video, 3:52, posted by “Ted-Ed,” March 10, 2016, https://youtu.be/loMy3sbW64g.
Ted-Ed. “Why is this painting so captivating? - James Earle and Christina Bozsik,” YouTube Video, 3:52. Posted March 10, 2016, https://youtu.be/loMy3sbW64g.

 

Music CD      14. Nirvana, Nevermind, DGC ‎– DGCD-24425, released September 24, 1991, compact disc.
Nirvana. Nevermind. DGC ‎– DGCD-24425, 1991, compact disc.

 

Painting, Sculpture or Photograph Retrieved from Artstor      15. Norman Rockwell. Freedom From Want, oil on canvas for posters, University of California, San Diego, accessed Oct. 10, 2017, http://library.artstor.org/#/asset/ARTSTOR_103_41822000958361.
Norman Rockwell. Freedom From Want, oil on canvas for posters, University of California, San Diego, accessed Oct. 10, 2017, http://library.artstor.org/#/asset/ARTSTOR_103_41822000958361

 

Painting, Sculpture or Photograph Retrieved Online      16. 7. Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses, 1890, oil on canvas, 28 3/4 x 36 3/8 in. (73 x 92.4 cm) New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Cezanne, Paul. Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses, 1890. Oil on canvas, 28 3/4 x 36 3/8 in. (73 x 92.4 cm) New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed June 2, 2017. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/51.112.1/.

 

Podcast (audio)      17. Josh Clark, “How Chili Peppers Work.” Stuff You Should Know, podcast audio, September 10, 2015. http://www.stuffyoushouldknow.com/podcasts/how-chili-peppers-work.htm.
Clark, Josh. “How Chili Peppers Work.” Stuff You Should Know, podcast audio, aired September 10, 2015. http://www.stuffyoushouldknow.com/podcasts/how-chili-peppers-work.htm.

 

Tweet      18. Donald J. Trump, Twitter post, January 22, 2017, 6:23 a.m., https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump.
Tweets do not have entries in the bibliography.

 

Sample Chicago Paper

This browser does not support PDFs. Please download the PDF to view it: Download PDF.